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This details the publish script in the synthetix repository for building, deploying and verifying contracts.

Imported from


This script can build (compile and flatten), deploy and verify (on Etherscan) the Synthetix code to a testnet or mainnet.

1. Build

Will compile bytecode and ABIs for all .sol files found in node_modules and the contracts folder. It will output them in a compiled folder in the given build path (see below), along with the flattened source files under the folder flattened.

# build (flatten and compile all .SOL sources)
node publish build # "--help" for options

2. Deploy

Will attempt to deploy (or reuse) all of the contracts listed in the given contract-flags input file, as well as perform initial connections between the contracts.

:warning: This step requires the build step having been run to compile the sources into ABIs and bytecode.

Note: this action will update the deployment files for the associated network in "publish/deployed/". For example, here's the "deployment.json" file for mainnet.

# deploy (take compiled SOL files and deploy)
node publish deploy # "--help" for options

CLI Options

  • -a, --add-new-synths Whether or not any new synths in the synths.json file should be deployed if there is no entry in the config file.
  • -b, --build-path [value] Path for built files to go. (default of ./build - relative to the root of this repo). The folders compiled and flattened will be made under this path and the respective files will go in there.
  • -c, --contract-deployment-gas-limit <value> Contract deployment gas limit (default: 7000000 (7m))
  • -d, --deployment-path <value> Path to a folder that has your input configuration file (config.json), the synths list (synths.json) and where your deployment.json file will be written (and read from if it currently exists). The config.json should be in the following format (here's an example):
// config.json
  "ProxysUSD": {
    "deploy": true // whether or not to deploy this or use existing instance from any deployment.json file


Note: the advantage of supplying this folder over just usi`ng the network name is that you can have multiple deployments on the same network in different folders

  • -g, --gas-price <value> Gas price in GWEI (default: "1")
  • -m, --method-call-gas-limit <value> Method call gas limit (default: 150000)
  • -n, --network <value> The network to run off. Either mainnet or sepolia. (default: "sepolia")
  • -o, --oracle <value> The address of the oracle to use. (default: 0xac1e8b385230970319906c03a1d8567e3996d1d5 - used for all testnets)
  • -f, --fee-auth <value> The address of the fee Authority to use for feePool. (default: 0xfee056f4d9d63a63d6cf16707d49ffae7ff3ff01 - used for all testnets) --oracle-gas-limit (no default: set to 0x5a556cc012642e9e38f5e764dccdda1f70808198)


# deploy to sepolia with 20 gwei gas
node publish deploy -n sepolia -d publish/deployed/sepolia -g 20
node publish deploy -n local -d publish/deployed/local -g 8

3. Verify

Will attempt to verify the contracts on Etherscan (by uploading the flattened source files and ABIs).

:warning: Note: the build step is required for the ABIs and the deploy step for the live addresses to use.

# verify (verify compiled sources by uploading flattened source to Etherscan via their API)
node publish verify # "--help" for options


# verify on sepolia.etherscan
node publish verify -n sepolia -d publish/deployed/sepolia

4. Nominate New Owner

For all given contracts, will invoke nominateNewOwner for the given new owner;

node publish nominate # "--help" for options


node publish nominate -n sepolia -d publish/deployed/sepolia -g 3 -c Synthetix -c ProxysUSD -o 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
node publish nominate -o 0xB64fF7a4a33Acdf48d97dab0D764afD0F6176882 -n sepolia -c ProxysUSD -d publish/deployed/sepolia -g 20

5. Owner Actions

Helps the owner take ownership of nominated contracts and run any deployment tasks deferred to them.

node publish owner # "--help" for options

6. Remove Synths

Will attempt to remove all given synths from the Synthetix contract (as long as they have totalSupply of 0) and update the config.json and synths.json for the deployment folder.

node publish remove-synths # "--help" for options


node publish remove-synths -n sepolia -d publish/deployed/sepolia -g 3 -s sRUB -s sETH

7. Replace Synths

Will attempt to replace all given synths with a new given subclass. It does this by disconnecting the existing TokenState for the Synth and attaching it to the new one.

node publish replace-synths # "--help" for options

7. Purge Synths

Will attempt purge the given synth with all token holders it can find. Uses the list of holders from mainnet, and as such won't do anything for other networks.

node publish purge-synths # "--help" for options

8. Release

Will initiate the synthetix release process, publishing the synthetix npm module and updating all dependent projects in GitHub and npm.

node publish release # "--help" for options

9. Staking Rewards

Will deploy an instance of StakingRewards.sol with the configured stakingToken and rewardsToken in rewards.json. Then run node publish verify

node publish deploy-staking-rewards # "--help" for options


node publish deploy-staking-rewards -n sepolia -d publish/deployed/sepolia -t sBTC --dry-run
node publish deploy-staking-rewards -n local -d publish/deployed/local


node publish release --version 2.22.0 --branch master --release Altair


For synthetix repo, we are using the following branch mapping:

  • alpha is sepolia
  • master is MAINNET

PRs should start being merged into develop then deployed onto sepolia, then merged into staging once deployed for releasing onto sepolia for staging into a mainnet release. These can be done multiple times for each branch, as long as we keep these up to date.


Using semantic versioning (semver): v[MAJOR].[MINOR].[PATCH]-[ADDITIONAL]

  • MAJOR stipulates an overhaul of the Solidity contracts
  • MINOR are any changes to the underlying Solidity contracts
  • PATCH are for any JavaScript or deployed contract JSON changes
  • ADDITIONAL are for testnet deployments
  • -alpha is for sepolia


  • Say v3.1.8 is a mainnet release
  • v3.1.9-alpha is a sepolia deployment of new synths (no contract changes)
  • v3.1.9 is the mainnet release with all environments


node publish release --version 2.22.0 --branch master --release Altair

When adding new synths

  1. In the environment folder you are deploying to, add the synth key to the synths.json file. If you want the synth to be purgeable, add subclass: "PurgeableSynth" to the object.
  2. [Optional] Run build if you've changed any source files, if not you can skip this step.
  3. Run deploy as usual but add the --add-new-synths flag
  4. Run verify as usual.



  • To document all the files changed by a SIP, on which layers, to aid with knowing which contracts need to be deployed and where.
  • To match up SIPs to releases.

How and when to update in PRs

  • Any PRs that involve a SIP must always add an entry to sips list.
  • However they should never allocate a SIP to a release (in releases list) - this is done once we are ready to promote a release to sepolia (and thus staging), this way, your PRs are disconnected from releases as they should be.


The fork-tests in CI will look for all sips that target the base layer and will attempt to deploy them and run the L1 integration tests on a fork.